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Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Cells to Surgery Quiz. In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Sequencing of the T cell receptor (TCR) of single cells can be useful for lineage tracing in either the normal immune response or in the context of malignancy. Satpathy and colleagues recently reported the robust and reproducible application of the combination of sequencing of TCRs with an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (T-ATAC-seq) to primary and immortalized T cells. This analysis paired epigenomic identification of cis and trans determinants of cell identity with RNA sequences of TCR genes, allowing mapping of single-cell chromatin states and immune cell phenotypes.
Following on the heels of the 2017 Medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation recommendations for achieving clear or almost clear skin as the standard of care, Merola and colleagues assessed the potential of body surface area (BSA) and BSA x static Physician Global Assessment (sPGA) as proxy measures for the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), which has been used for clinical practice decisions despite its cumbersome nature. In a pooled sample of 3,886 patients, BSA and BSA x sPGA proved sufficient, especially for high clinical response.
Uncommon Filaggrin Variants Are Associated with Persistent Atopic Dermatitis in African Americans
The association of obesity with psoriasis is well known, but the molecular link between these two entities is incompletely characterized. Herbert et al. report that dietary saturated fatty acids, rather than obesity itself, promote exacerbation of psoriasis in high fat diet-induced obesity. They also suggest that dietary manipulation could improve psoriasis.
SFRP2/DPP4 and FMO1/LSP1 Define Major Fibroblast Populations in Human Skin
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) Limit RIPK1-Mediated Skin Inflammation
The Society for Investigative Dermatology (SID) and similar organizations have been grappling with inclusion and diversity issues for decades and, in some sense, since their inceptions. Membership has never been universal, and the makeup of the SID over time has reflected broader social forces well outside the control of the organization. Leadership of scientific organizations, such as the SID, recognized early on the essential need to attract and retain new members. However, there is always a tension between welcoming the new and the potential for change versus the desire to preserve what is viewed as timeless and important.
Whole-Exome Sequencing of Acquired Nevi Identifies Mechanisms for Development and Maintenance of Benign Neoplasms
NF-κB Participates in Mouse Hair Cycle Control and Plays Distinct Roles in the Various Pelage Hair Follicle Types
Homozygosity mapping (HM), also known as autozygosity mapping, was originally used to map genes underlying homozygous autosomal recessive Mendelian diseases in patients from closely genetically related populations, followed by Sanger sequencing. With the increase in use of next-generation sequencing approaches, such as whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, together with advanced bioinformatics filtering approaches, HM is again emerging as a powerful method for the identification of genes involved in disease etiology.
AcneLB1508, LB1516, LB1557, LB1569, LB1570, LB1585
It remains a challenge to preserve stem and progenitor cells during expansion of epidermal keratinocytes ex vivo under serum-free and feeder-cell-free culture condition. This limitation greatly hinders the development of advanced autologous cell and gene therapeutics for inherited skin diseases such as epidermolysis bullosa and injuries such as severe burns. We have developed a serum-free and feeder-cell-free culture technology (EpiX™) that allows rapid generation of more than one-trillion epidermal keratinocytes while retaining the stem and progenitor cell population.
Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels, and it is involved in physiological and pathological processes. This complex event is regulated by various pro/anti angiogenic molecules, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Wound healing is a condition in which angiogenesis plays an important role, since the formation of new vessels is essential for the arrival of inflammatory cells, removal of cellular debris, and the adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the injured site.
Human and murine skin wounding usually result in fibrotic scarring. However large wounding, as exemplified in the murine model Wound Induced Hair Neogenesis (WIHN), can result in either regenerative repair, replete with hair neogeneis, or in fibrotic scarring, with all the hallmarks of that condition. We have compared these healing fates in the WIHN model to show that M2 macrophages are requisite for dermal remodeling and regeneration but higher numbers promote chronic myofibroblast Wnt activity and fibrogenesis.
Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) is a transmembrane protein, involved in tissue reverse cholesterol transport and known as HDLs main receptor. Several studies have demonstrated that SR-B1 is also implicated in several other processes, such as bacteria and apoptotic cells recognition and regulation of intracellular antioxidant levels. Although this receptor is mainly localized in the liver and steroidogenic tissues, it has been shown that it is significantly expressed also in human skin, especially in the epidermis.
There is increasing evidence that cutaneous ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with the development of pressure ulcers (PUs). Botulinum toxin (BTX) suppress the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. Several studies have demonstrated that BTX enhanced the blood flow and survival of ischemic skin flaps in animal cutaneous flap models. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of BTX-B on the formation of PUs in the cutaneous I/R injury.